Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

MLA: New in MLA 8

Common Abbreviations

Abbreviation Word
ch. Chapter
dept. Department
ed. Edition
e.g. For example
et al. And others
etc. And so forth
i.e. That is
no. Number
P Press
p., pp. Page, pages
par. Paragraph
qtd. In Quoted in
rev. Revised
sec. Section
trans. Translation
U University

Please note: If you are ever unsure of an abbreviation, it is always best to spell it out.

Major Changes in the 8th Edition


- Common terms like editor, edited by, translator, and review are no longer abbreviated.
- Volume and Number are abbreviated vol. and no. (ex. vol. 8, no. 2) instead of listing the two with a dot between them (ex.
- Publishers' names are given in full, except business words like Company (Co.) are dropped and, for academic presses, the abbreviations U (University), P (Press), and UP (University Press) are used.


- When a source has three or more authors, only the first one shown in the source is given. It is then followed by et al. This is true in works-cited entries and in in-text citations.

Books and Other Printed Works

- Page numbers in the works-cited list (not in the in-text citations) are preceded by p. (for a single page) or pp. (for multiple pages).
- For books, the city of publication is no longer given.
- Do not give the medium (print, electronic book, etc.) in citations.


- If an issue of a journal is dated with a month or a season, the month or season is now always cited along with the year.

Online Works

- The URL (without http:// or https://) is always given for a web source. A permalink, if available, is preferred to a URL.
- The citing of DOIs, or the Digital Object Identifier, are encouraged.
- Citing the date of access is optional.
- Use the date of access for Web sources that do not list a publication date.
- No longer use placeholders for unknown information like n.d. ("no date"). If facts missing from a work are available in a trustworthy external resource, they are cited in square brackets. Otherwise, they are omitted entirely.


- A forward slash (/) separates the names of copublishers.
- If the publisher name is the same as the Web site title, omit the publisher name.


- Indentations for long quotations in text is now 1/2 inch.